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Odds for Life


There are about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. In standard notation that’s


Since the Hubble Space Telescope has pushed our eyes ever farther into the observable universe, astronomers now believe that there are more than 200 billion galaxies. That’s


If our Milky Way is an “average” galaxy, then there must be more than 20,000 billion billion stars. That’s


or 20 sextillion. Astronomers are more sanguine, however. Latest estimates put the number of stars at more than 70 sextillion. That’s a lot of stars. If some tiny fraction of them, say 1 in a billion have planets orbiting them with conditions favorable to life, that’s still more than 70 trillion planets capable of supporting life.

Astrophysicists also tell us that the universe is 12 to 15 billion years old. Of course many, perhaps most, of the planets capable of supporting life haven’t been around that long. Perhaps, like the earth, they’ve been around for only 5 or 6 billion years. It’s also possible, however, that many planets now cold and barren were once warm and capable of sustaining life. Perhaps 5 billion years ago, when our earth was just starting, there were other planets billions of years old that were just starting to darken or grow cold, planets long since dead that were capable of sustaining life billions of years ago. Let’s suppose that over the course of billions of years, say 10 billion, the number of planets capable of sustaining life has remained relatively constant. Let’s also suppose that the probability that life would arise and thrive by chance alone on one of these planets is 1 in 1015 for every million years. That’s a very small number, much too small for human beings to observe, since we would have to observe trillions of planets over the course of billions of years to have any hope of seeing life happen. Nevertheless, the number of chances for life to arise on one of those 70 trillion planets over the course of 10 billion years would be:

70 × 1012 ×10 × 109 × 10-6 = 700 × 1015

Suddenly that 1 in 1015 chance doesn’t look so small. In fact, the probability that no life would arise on those planets would be

(1 – 10-15)(700 × 1015)

This is a number very slightly less that 1 raised to a truly enormous power. If it were 1 (i. e., if the probability of life arising by chance alone were really zero), then all argument would be over. The probability of no life would be 1. But since it is ever so slightly less than 1, raising it to a truly enormous power makes it approach zero. I don’t have the mathematics background to calculate this number, but I suspect it is very close to zero. If so, it means that the probability of life arising by chance alone somewhere in the universe would be virtually certain.

To see how this works lets take an easier example. Lets toss 10 pennies on a table and see how many land heads up. What is the probability that all will land heads up? Since each penny has a 50/50 chance of landing heads up, the probability that all 10 will land that way is:

0.510 = 0.0009765625

Now let’s say we get 300 people tossing 10 pennies each. (Of course, we would have to supply $30 to purchase the pennies, but let’s not worry about that just now.) What is the probability that none of them will have all the pennies come up heads? The probability is

(1 – 0.0009765625)300 = 0.74593866970625976803095741268068

This means that there is a slightly greater than 1 in 4 chance that 300 people tossing 10 coins will see at least one toss where all the coins come up heads. If we increase the number of people to 1000, then the probability of at least one occurrence of all heads is greater than 60%. If we increase it to 10,000, then the probability of at least 1 throw of all heads becomes greater than 99.994%, very nearly certain.

So you see, when people talk about life arising by chance, it may indeed be a very small chance but multiplied over trillions of opportunities and billions of years. The only problem is, we don’t have the faintest idea what the chance of life arising on its own is. Maybe it’s on the order of 1 in 1015, as I suggested. Maybe it’s 1 in 1015,000,000. Maybe it really is 0. But if it is 0, then a larger and more difficult question presents itself: How can we possibly be if we can’t possibly have come to be?


Mind Before Matter


There are only two possibilities. Either mind arose from matter, or matter arose from mind. Either we, with our minds having such apparently limitless potential, arose from billions of years of chance meetings between various bits of matter, or everything that is was purposely created by a mind vaster than we can imagine. Which is it?

Even granting all that evolution claims: that life becomes increasingly complex, that we share common ancestry with every other living thing on the planet, that our intelligence—our mind—evolved from living things with no mind at all and no mechanism but a mindless need to replicate—even granting all that, the question remains: where did life come from? For if no mind created it, then it must have simply happened somehow on earth or been carried here by some means in the distant past. It turns out that even the simplest living things are extraordinarily complex and fragile. In order for life to succeed, it must have happened not once but many times over the eons. Yet our best efforts at reproducing conditions under which life could just happen have failed to produce a single living thing from non-living matter. Despite recent findings that suggest the primordial earth may have been more hospitable to life than was hitherto believed, no one has been able to suggest a means by which life could have simply appeared in order to take advantage of that more hospitable environment.

Perhaps life came from elsewhere, from some place where conditions we cannot imagine were more favorable to its appearance. Perhaps it was transported here by some meteor that struck the earth at just the right time for the life it carried to thrive in the optimal conditions it encountered. But moving the appearance of life off planet solves nothing. In fact, it raises further difficulties.

If life came from off planet, how did it survive in interstellar space, known to be most inhospitable to life? For everything out there is too hot or too cold, too dry, too exposed to deadly radiation or violence. And having survived the rigors of interstellar space, how did it survive impact with the earth? Just look at Meteor Crater in Arizona. It is a mile wide and was formed by a chunk of rock the size of a refrigerator. The meteor itself vaporized on impact. The idea that life somehow landed on the earth is even less likely than that it simply appeared here by chance.

So are we left with? Either mind after matter with a major conundrum about the origin of life, or mind before matter and the possibility of a purpose beyond ourselves.