Categories
bible jesus law

Jesus and the Law

Share

Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.

Matthew 5:17-18

The history of Israel is a history of struggle against God and his law. No matter where you dip into the Old Testament, you find the same things happening again and again: cycles of sin, repentance, deliverance, complacency, and sin again. From the Aachen’s sin at the conquest of Jericho, to the dull refrain in Judges that the people did what was right in their own eyes. From Eli’s sons taking bribes and perverting justice, to Solomon’s burden of taxation. From the splitting of the kingdom, to the Assyrian captivity of the northern kingdom. From the threats posed by Egypt to the Babylonian captivity. From the ethnic cleansing under Ezra to the revolt of the Maccabees. Even after the Babylonian captivity, when the Jews finally accepted the monotheism of their religion, they still were not able to fully embody the Law Moses had given.

For the Law was intended as a revelation of God’s unchanging nature: his unfailing compassion, kindness, and love. But by Jesus’ day it had become a labyrinth of laws, commentaries, and further clarifications, obfuscating God’s nature and burdening his people beyond endurance. Yet Jesus makes it clear that he has no intention of abolishing the Law or the Prophets. Rather, he has come to fulfill them.

It is easy to understand what it means to fulfill prophecy—though very hard to actually do it. How do you choose your birthplace, for example? But it may be hard to understand what it means to fulfill the Law. One possibility is to simply keep the Law, something Jesus claimed to have done. He challenged his critics to produce one shred of evidence that he was guilty of breaking any Law. Yet if keeping the Law were all he did, his accomplishment would have meaning only for himself alone. But he went further, and made it possible for his followers to have a change of heart so that they would observe the Law not by outward rituals and forms but by representing to the world the real character of God—his loving kindness and compassion. He fulfilled the Law by internalizing it in his followers.

Thus he goes on to redefine murder as hatred and adultery as lust. He urges his followers not to take oaths to certify the truth of what they say, to be generous even to those who try to harm them, and to show care even for enemies. In short, he wants them to be perfect as their heavenly Father is perfect. This is the fulfillment of the Law—an assembly of believers who represent God’s perfect love to a skeptical, watching, hurting world.

Share
Categories
bible faith jesus law patience prayer Satan spirit theology trust worship

How to Resist

Share

Immediately after his baptism with water and with the Spirit of God, that same Spirit leads Jesus into an uninhabited region where he goes without food for 40 days and faces testing from the devil. After 40 days, he was hungry, so the first test he faces springs from his hunger. The devil says, “If you’re the Son of God, prove it. Turn these stones into bread.” But Jesus responds with a truth more profound and basic than his hunger. He responds with what is written in the Law, “Human beings don’t get their life from bread but from every word that God speaks.”

The devil tries a different tack that is really just a variation on the same test. He takes him to the highest point of the temple in Jerusalem and says, “If you are the Son of God, prove it. The Bible says, ‘He will put guardian angels around you to protect you from harm. You won’t even stub your toe.’ Jesus again goes to the Law for a more basic truth. “The Bible also says, ‘Don’t put the Lord your God to the test to see if he’ll do what he says.'”

The devil makes one more attempt. Since he couldn’t get to him by questioning his identity, he tries to short cut what he believes must be God’s plan. He offers all the kingdoms of the world if Jesus will just acknowledge Satan as God. Jesus doesn’t dispute the devil’s power to do as he says. Instead he responds that worship and service belong to God alone and not to any created being. So again, Jesus does nothing except quote the Bible.

Later, when Jesus is teaching his disciples to pray, he tells them to pray, “Lead us not into temptation.” Yet the Spirit led Jesus into temptation, and James tells us to consider times of trial as pure joy because they produce patience. Patience is yielding to the agency of others. In this case, it is yielding to the agency of God. In each case, the temptation was to exert agency and do something, and each case, the resistance was to do nothing but hold on to God’s plan. So “lead us not into temptation,” but if you do, then “deliver us from the evil one.” God’s deliverance comes in the form of a patient resistance that keeps trusting in God to be the one who moves his plan forward.

Share
Categories
jesus law religion righteousness salvation sin spiritual life

Fulfilling the Law

Share

“Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”

Matthew 5:17-18

One of the charges leveled at the early church—and indeed at Jesus himself—was that they taught people to ignore the demands of the Torah, referred to here as the Law and the Prophets. In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus contrasts the behavior expected of his followers with the behavior demanded by the Law. He makes it clear at the outset that his intention is not to get rid of the Law or supersede it. Instead, he is going to fulfill the Law and the Prophets.

What does it mean to fulfill the Law and the Prophets?

Of course, the immediately obvious answer is that the Old Testament contains numerous references to a coming Messiah, so Jesus could be proclaiming himself to be that Messiah. But Jesus doesn’t refer only to prophecy. He refers also to Law, to the rules God gave through Moses for governing human behavior. He claims that he has come to fulfill those rules. What can it mean to fulfill the Law?

One of the repeated themes of the Old Testament is that no one is righteous. Paul summarizes it in Romans 3 where he quotes eight Old Testament passages about the universal depravity of human beings. No one, Paul claims, keeps the Law. Is it because the demands of the Law are too difficult to be kept? Is it because, as many of the poor in Jesus’ day apparently believed, only the wealthy can afford to meet the Law’s demands? Regardless the reasons, the Torah is clear that everyone is guilty of not keeping the Law.

Despite these warnings from the Torah, the Pharisees and religious leaders in Jesus’ day thought of themselves as keeping the Law. They were confident that by keeping the commandments and doing pious acts, they were meeting the requirements of the Law and would be saved. Jesus again and again exposed their hypocrisy and pointed out that they were deluding themselves. In fact, far from being righteous enough on their own merits, they were actually in worse shape than the “sinners” they so despised.

Jesus fulfilled the Law by keeping it, not as the Pharisees kept it by assiduously following the rules to the letter while gratifying their own lust and greed and desire for power. No, he kept it as it was intended: as a guide to loving God and other people. He kept it by doing good. In the end, he fulfilled the Law by meeting its demands for justice in his own body, a blameless, unblemished Lamb sacrificed for human beings’ inability to fulfill the Law on their own. To those who by trusting in him accept his sacrifice, he gives the ability by his Spirit to see him as he is and become like him, doing good wherever they go.

Share